Agatos Consultancy and Chemicals B.V. is Specialized in Chemical wast disposal With main focus on H2SO4, HCL and organic peroxide waste streams.

1 Treatment of H2SO4 related wastes.

1.1 Disposal Methods

Dilution and Neutralization: Here only relatively small quantities are involved, the waste H2SO4 20-30% can be diluted with water and then partially or completely neutralized with spend NAOH. This is done in the Aluminum industry in Belgium and The Netherlands.

A) Combustion: If sulphur content is not too high, combustion in incinerators like the former AVR and Indaver are possible although costs are high in comparison to other methods.

B) Depository: Possible, however very unusual, is the final storage of liquids in depositories like the C2 deponie at the Maasvlakte.

C) AVIíS in Holland like AVI-West in Amsterdam. Expensive. Only very low concentrations.

1.2 Recovery Methods.

A) Hydrolysis and reconcentration. Most sulfonic acids may be hydrolysed with water to sulphuric acid and an organic remainder. Companies are doing so with their Plinke and Bertram installations.

B) Thermal Decomposition. Only suitable for large scale operations like . The composition of the waste streams is less important than the final composition and texture of the mixed feed.

C) Solvent extraction. Proposed for specific types of spend acid such as alcohol wastes, sulphuric acid used to reduce organic impurities and spend acid from drying chlorine.

D) Ion exchange. A process has been suggested for the treatment of acid sludge obtained from the sulphuric acid treatment of kerosene or white spirit by dilution with water to form an oil and an aqueous phase. The oil is contacted with an ion exchange resin which removes acids, thus rendering the oil suitable for direct use in fuel oils.

E) Other Methods. Several processes have been suggested for treating spend alkylation acid: for instance, the sludge may be heated to produce a gel which hydrolyzed to produce an aqueous sulphuric acid solution.